Ceramic tiles are considered one of the most durable and beautiful building facing materials and has a rich historical heritage. Scientists have found that the first samples resembling a mosaic were discovered in the I-II-Styleshelephy BC. e. In the interfluve of the Tiger and Euphrates, they served for the decor of the palaces of the nobility and temples. Until today, ceramic tile decoration is considered one of the most popular types of decoration. Subsequently, the widespread use of ceramic products and tiles was observed in many ancient states. From III century B. e. to the VIII century n. e. The production of ceramic tiles was widely developed from ancient Iranian masters. In the period from the VIII to the XVII centuries, entire cities were built in Spain with the use of ceramic tiles and mosaics as finishing material, which were engaged in the manufacture of Moors (Arabs and Berbers), immigrants from Iran. In the VIII century, almost the entire territory of modern Spain was captured by the Arabs. And only during the time of reconquists (ISP. Reconquista from the verb “reconquistar” – to win) Muslims were replaced from Spain, and the secrets of manufacturing Arab tiles become known to Catholic monks. From that time on, the National Spanish School for the Making Ceramic Tiles and Mosaic began to develop, which has become a standard of high quality and strength and is such today. It was in Spain that porous tiles with transparent glaze appeared. Currently, Spanish tiles, which have centuries-old traditions of production technologies, occupies a leading position in the world market, where many modern manufacturing companies are represented: Alaphana, Ape, Argenta, Azahar, Ceracasa, Ceramica Alcora, Grespania, Pamesa, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta, Peronta Plaza, Rocersa, Venus, etc.
In the X-XI centuries, Italian masters used artificial dyes in the glaze and created high-porous samples of majolica, rich in an abundance of color and shapes. The major was widely used to create works of art and served as a decorative material for decorating not only cities, temples, fountains, squares, facades, but also interiors of noble house houses. Italian tiles with a wide palette of color scheme, the beauty and grace of forms, which inherited the traditions of unique technologies of Greek and Etruscan masters of pottery production, is still in high demand in the consumer market. The most popular in the world market are such manufacturers of ceramic tiles as: Atlas Concorde, Ariana, Ascot, Bardelli, Bardelli, Bisazza, Campani, Cedir, Ceramic, Dom Ceramiche, Gardenia Orchidea, IMPRONTA, IMPRONTA , Marazzzi, Marca Corona, Ricchetti, Santagostin0, Tagina. and etc.
The production of ceramic tiles has spread throughout the world. However, the priority of quality remains after Spain and Italy. Ceramic tiles did not bypass Russia and Russia. In Russia, ceramic art, oriented mainly on the traditions of Byzantine and Greek masters, begins to develop widely in the 9th century, from the moment of the appearance of Christianity. The Russian school of ceramic tiles is born. Pskov masters managed to get the first Russian samples of water – and frost -resistant tiles. From the XVIII century to the beginning of the twentieth century, Russia used mainly the traditions of the Dutch manufacturing technology up to 90% of facing ceramic tiles. Much later, Russian branded manufacturers of porcelain tiles and collection ceramic tiles appeared, not inferior to foreign counterparts and complies with all European standards. These are companies: Kerama Marazzi, Estimo, Cersanit-Russia, Jade Keramika, Grasaro, Uralkeramika, Azori, Stroyfarfo OJSC, Sokol OJSC, Italon, and others. Almost every apartment renovation involves the use of ceramic tiles. Ceramic tiles, thanks to its magnificent high -quality properties, surpassing cement and reinforced concrete, survived the centuries -old history and gained amazingly persistent popularity among consumers around the world.